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Czech Grammar

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                                                                      Alphabet
                                                                       
Abeceda


Alphabet read as letter as in text Czech examples English sound alikes
a, á, A, Á á a anglicky, tam, káva article, artist, tra-la-la, above
á káva arm, class, father, ah
b B b bota; Kuba, byt; blízko, bohatì, bear, bad, bat
c C c cesta, cukr, moc; noci cease, celery, tse-tse, cats
č, Č čé č často, česky - Czech, včera chin, church, beach, chat
d, D d daleko, dlou ho, doma, den, jeden, jedna deer, dot, dog
ï, Ï ïé ï ïabel, Láïa duty
e, é, É, ì, Ì, é e pes, den, je let, get, set, met
é léto, malé there, where, ledge
ì tobì yet, yellow, yet (eh)
f ef f fakulat, biftek fig, fall
g g galerie game, gold, good, gas
h h mohu, ahoj, hezky, hudba, hnát, hlava head, heat, ham
ch, Ch chá ch hoch, chápat cholesteral, Bach, loch
i, í, I, Í mìkké í (soft i) i pivo ink, insect, sit, it
í bí machine, marine, see, sleep
j j jeden, èaj, nejsem, jsem yes (yuh), yesterday
k k káva, ruka, který, kluk, krásnì keep, key
l,L el l líto, dal hallow
m M em m místo, dùm, možná middle, milk, me
n, N en n ne, ano, den, nahoøe napkin, never, noon
ò, Ò ò píseò canyon
o, O, ó o (krátké o, dloué o o slovo, opravdu, odkud orange, orient, omit
ó folklór floor, more, oh
p P p psal, koupit, podobnì pair, pantry, pen
q kvé qu quasi quick, question [in czech words replaced by k, q might appeat in foreign words
r, R er r ráno, ruka, bratr rabbit, radio, rent; rolled sound -rock
ø, Ø ø øada, døevo, dobøe, øíkala a rooled sound (rzh)
s, S es s maso soon, son, sew
š, Š š šest, máš, škoda sugar,sure, ship
t, T t ten, auto, být, tìžko table, take,ten
,  é  uk, koata tube, tumor, (tyuh)
u, U, ú, Ú , ù ú u ruka, kus bull, put
ú always st the begining of the word úèetní, úloha rule, ruthless, rude
ù never used to start a sentence dùm rude, ruthless, soon
v, V v káva, vy, vdaná have, value, vine
w, W dvojité vé (double v) w western [in czech there is no w except in foreign words] whale, what
x, X iks x krucifix [appears in foreign words] extra, six
y, Y, ý, Ý tvrdé ý (hard i) y bysta, bys, bydlo mystery, mystic, funny
ý bílý, žádný forty, rowdy, meet
z, Z zet z podzim, mezi zebra, zoo
ž, Ž žet ž žena, džbán, žádný azure, jealous, casual
- - The seven Cases - - Sedm Pádù - -


  1. Nominative case ( Nominativ Páde!): case of the subject of the sentence, of the predicate nominative (after the verb "to be"), and of a noun standing alone (unless in direct address or understood as part of an incomplete sentence): Answers the questions
    • KDO? - or who? is the doer of, or subjected to, some action.
      • Who is writing a letter? -- Kdo píše dopis?
      • Father is writing a letter. -- Otec píše dopis. - - The word "otec" is in the 1st case as it is the answer to "who".
    • CO?- or what? something is said about.
      • What is there: -- Co je tam?
      • There is a forest there. -- Tam je les. - - The work "les" is in the 1st case as it is the answer to "what".
  2. Genitive (Genitiv Páde!), similar to English possessive case (My friend's home).
    • A word is in the 2nd case when it answers the question "whose" or "of whom", Èí, or "of what:, Èeho (second case of Co.)
      Èeho barva je hnìdá?
      The color of what is brown?
      Barva stolu je hnìdá
      The color of the table is brown.
      Èí je to svetr? Je to svetr mého bratra
    • This case is used to indiate the relation of "belonging to", which sometimes amounts to actual possession,
    • while in other instances it expresses the quality, quantity or size of a person or thing.
      mnoho papíru much paper
    • It is also used in certain time phrases and after certain prepositions, e.g.,
      do into Jdu do divadla
      z out of, from within Jdu z divadla Jedu z Prahy (I come from Prague)
      s down from
      od from, away from (in which one has not been inside) Jdo od bratra Jdu od Prahy I am traveling in a direction away from Praque
      u near, by, at the house/place of
      vedle beside, next to
      bez without

  3. Dative (Dativ Páde!)
    • The dative case is the case of the indirect object. It tells for whose benefit the action is performed supplies an asnwer to the question "to whom?" (komu?)[and ocassionally "for whom" or "to what?"(èemu?). Note that the preposition to and for are not always expressed in English:
      Dávám bratrovi knihu I give my brother a book ( i.e., to my brother.)
      Komu píšeš
      To whom are you writing?
      Píšu bratovi
      I am writing to my brother
      Komu píšete
      To whom are you writing?
      Píši panu Novákovi
      I am writing to Mr. Novák
      Ke komu jdete?
      To whom are you going?
      Jdu k øezníkovi
      I am going to the butcher's
    • A word is in the 3rd case when it follows a verb that expresses "giving" or any other act directed to the object of a sentence. It is used after a verb like giving [to give - dávati], sending, saying [to say - øíkati], answering [to answer - odpovídati], writing something to someone.
    • The dative is always used with the preposition k (ke before words beginning with a group of consonants: ku before the labials p, b, m followed by a second consonant.) K means towards, to the vicintu of, in the direction of. to the house (office, store, etc,) of. Thus, its use corresponds to that of u and od with the genitive.
      Jdu k bratrovi I go to Brother (Brother's) dative
      Jsem u bratra I am at brother's. genitive
      Jdu od bratra I come from Brother (Brother's) genitive
      Jedu k mìstu I go towards the city (but not into it) dative
      Jsem u mìsta I am near the city genitive
      Jedu od mìsta I come away from the city (but have not been it it) genitive
    • In espressions of time, k means towards:
      k veèeru towards evening.
  4. Accusative Case (Akuzativ Páde!) is used for
    • the direct object of transitive verbs, that is , it tells what person is directly affected by the action of the verb. (direct object case which marks the receiver of the action or the thing acted upon by the subject). It answers the questions Whom? What? [Hledám Janu. Jana is nominative],
      Koho vidí Hoch
      Whom does the boy see?
      Hoch vidí pána
      The boy sees a gentleman
      Co nese listonoš?
      What does the postman carry
      Listonoš nese balík.
      The postman carries a parcel.
    • after some prepostions (e.g., na on to, for, pøes, across, pro for, on behalf of) [Èekám na Janu., Jana i snominative case],
    • and in phrases of time duration [Èekám celý den.].
    • The acusative is also used when asking for something: [Tužku, prosím.]
    Co tam vidíš? Vidím tam matku. Matka (f) is the nominative case
    Koho jsi tam vidìl? Vidìl jsem matku. or
    Vidìl jsem tam pøítele.
    matka (f) is nominative case
    pøítel (m) is nominative case

  5. Vocative case (Vokativ Páde! ), or 5th case, is used
    • to address [Otèe náš. Teto má.]
    • or call a person [Nováku, pojdte jsem. Novák is nonimative and ends in k.]
    • Milena: Ahoj, Mileno! = Hi, Milena!
    • Katka: Nazdar, Katko! = Hi, Katka!
    • Julie: Ahoj, Julie! =
    • Marie: Èau, Marie!
    • Milan - - Milane!
    • ludvík - - Ludvíku!
    • Bedøidh - - Bedøichu!
    • Miloš -- Miloši
    • Tomáš - - Tomáši!
  6. Locative case (Lokativ Páde!), or 6th case, is only used after perpositions v (ve) 'in", na "on", o "about", po "after", pøí "beside".
      v (ve) in (=inside whom? what?)
      [not "into" for indicating direction]
      v kom? v èem?
      inanimate maculines, with some exceptions, have -ì after labials and dentals (p,b, m, v, t, d,n), otherwise -2;But those which have stems ending in - r or velar sounds (spelt, -h, -ch, -k) usually add -u.
      les - v lese; obchod - v obchodì; kábat - v kábatì; dùm - v domì; park - v parku; vzduch - ve vzduchu; divadlo - v divadle; mìsto - v mìstì; kino - v kinì; okno - v oknì; slovenslo = na slovensku; jezero - v jezeru
      Je v Praze
      He is in Prague
      na on, upon (whom? what)
      na kom? na èem
      Leži na podlazae.
      He is lying on the floor.
      o
      • of or about (whom? what")
        o kom? o èem?
      • mostly used after the verbs
        • mluviti (o kom? o èem?) = to speak of or about
        • slyšeti (o kom? o èem?)= to hear of or about (whom? what?)
        • vìdìti (o kom? o èem?) =to know of or about (whom" what?)
        • and other similar verbs..
      • It also means: at (what time?)
      Mluví o Praze.
      He is talking about Prague.
      po after (i.e., following whom" what?)
      po kom? po èem
      Po obìd spí.
      After lunch he sleeps.
      pøí at, by=near (whom? what?)
      pøí kom? pøí èem
      Sedí pøí okní
      He is sitting by/at/beside the window
  7. Instrumental. (Instrumentál Páde!)
    • The instrumental is used to express the means, instrument, or agent by which an action is performed.
      Žák píše tužkou. The pupil writes with a pencil. Autem nebo vlakem? - By car of train?
      Jedeme autem to Prahy. We are going by car to Prague. Proè píšeš tím špatným pérem? - Why are you writing with this bad pen?
      Bratr kývá hlavou. Brother nods (with) his head. Kterou cestou jsi šel do mìsta - How=by what way?
      Praha mne pøekvapila svou vanoèní náladou. - Pague surprised by with its Christmas spirit.
    • Place of motion. when motion occurrs in, on, or through a certain place, the noun denoting that place is often put into the instrumental.
    • The instrumental, or 7th case, is used after the following Prepostions:
      s, se s kým? s èím?
      =with (whom? what?)
      Píše s Janu dopis.
      He is writing a letter with Jana.
      with (in company with) Prosím vás, pane profesore, mohu s vámi mluvit?
      mezi mezi kým? mezi èím?
      =between (whom? what?)
      nad nad kým? nad èím?
      =above, over (whom? what?)
      Letadlo kroužilo nad naším mìstem. The aeroplane circled over the town.
      pod pod kým? pod èím?
      =under, underneath, below, beneath (whom? what?)
      Pod stromem leželo mnoho jablek.
      pøed pøed kým? pøed èím?
      =before (whom? what?)
      Vaclav na nás èekal pøed Národním divadlem.
      za za kým? za èím?
      =behind (whom? what?)
      Sedí za oknem.
      He/she is sitting behind the window.
      Za tím lesem je hluboké jezero.
      Note: when mezi, nad, pod, pøed, za used with a sense of motion the accusative case is used.
      The demonstrative adjective is tím: to péro - tím pérem.

an example
Declension of the feminie adjective, singular
1 pád: To je dobrá matka, rùže, noc.
2 pád: To je jméno dobré matky, rùže, noci.
3 pád: Pùjdu k dobré matce, rùži, noci.
4 pád: Vidím dobrou matku, rùži, noc.
5 pád: Voláme: dobrá matko, rùže, noc.
6 pád: Mluvímé o dobre matce, rùži, noci.
7 pád: Šel jsem za dobrou matkou, rùží, nocí.
The Verb "to be" - Sloveso "být"

Personal pronouns   present future past
1st sing I   I am (já) jsem I will já budu I was já jsem byl (m) - byla (f)
2nd sing you ty   you are (ty) jsi you will ty budeš you were ty jsi byl, ty jsi byla
3rd sing m
3rd sing f
3rd n
he
she
it, that
on (m)
ona (f)
ono, to (n)
  he is
she is
it, that is
on je
ona je
ono je
he will
she will
it will
on bude
ona bude
ono bude
he was
she was
it was
on byl
ona byla
ono (to) bylo
1st plural we my   we are my jsme we will my budeme we were my jsme byli (m), byly (f)
2nd plural you vy or Vy   you are vy or Vy jste you will vy or Vy budete you were vy or Vyjste byli (m), byly (f)
3rd plural m
3rd plural f
3rd plural n
they oni (ma), ony (mi)
ony (fem.)
ona (neuter)
  they are
they are
they are
oni, ony jsou
ony jsou
ona jsou
they will oni, ony budou
ony budou
ona budou
they were oni byli (ma), ony byly (Mi)
ony byly (f)
ona byla
  present negative future negative past negative
1st I   I am not já nejsem I shall not be já nebudu I was not já jsem nebyl (m) - nebyla (f)
2nd you ty   you are not ty nejsi you will not be ty nebudeš you were not ty jsi nebyl (m), jsi nebyla (f)
3rd m
3rd f
3rd n
he
she
it, that
on (m)
ona (f)
ono, to (n)
  he is not
she is not
it, that is not
on (m) není
ona není
ono, to není
he will not be
she will not be
it will not be
on nebude
ona nebude
ono (to) nebude
he was not
she was not
it was not
on nebyl
ona nebyla
ono (to) nebylo
1st we my   we are not my nejsme we will not be my nebudeme we were not my jsme nebyli (m), nebyly (f)
2nd you vy or Vy   you are not
vy or Vy
vy nejste you will not be vy nebudete you were not vy jste nebyli (m), nebyly (f)
3rd m
3rd f
3rd n
they oni (ma), ony (mi)
ony (fem.)
ona (neuter)
  they are not oni, ony nejsou
ony nejsou
ona (neuter) nejsou
they will not be oni, ony nebudou
ony nebudou
ona nebudou
They were not
they were not
they were not
oni nebyli, ony nebyly
ony nebyly
ona nebyla
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